Posted - 19 Mar 2010 : 15:29:18
http://ethiopiques.refer.sn/article.php3?id_article=186&artsuite=15. Foundation News - Culture and CivilizationBOOK FAIR IN SAINT LOUIS: OPENING STATEMENT ON BEHALF OF PRESIDENT LS Senghor BY THE GENERAL IDRISSA FALL, DIRECTOR-GENERAL OF THE FOUNDATION LSSIdrissa Fall Print Ethiopiques No 54. Biannual review of Black African culture New series volume7-2nd half 1991Author: Mamadou MANEINTRODUCTIONTwo major events have helped lift Kaabu of anonymity which had hitherto held the majority of modern historians. Yet the subject is still today widely treated by our griots traditionalists for whom knowledge of the past Kaabunké constitutes an important benchmark in the profession "jali (griot). Indeed, no Koriste Senegambia, worthy of the name can not step into his repertoire of "Ceddo, this epic song, real condensed history of centuries of Nyanthios Kaabu. The first International Congress on the Mandingo civilization in London in 1972 and International Symposium on Oral Traditions of Kaabu held in Dakar in 1980 by Leopold Sedar Senghor Foundation are the two major events that have revealed Kaabu the curiosity of modern historians . During these two international meetings, participants were able to assess the quality of the work of two pioneers in the field. Those Sékéné-CISSOKHO Mody, who was a professor at the University of Dakar, and Bakari Sidibe, Gambian researcher who now heads the Center for Collecting Oral Traditions of Banjul and remains one of the best specialists in historical traditions Mandingo of Senegambia  Accordingly, interest increasingly focused on Kaabu would develop and grow to occupy now dozens of researchers in both Africa and the United States and Europe. In addition, the Africans Sékéné CISSOKHO Mody, Bakary Sidibe Djibril Tamsir Niane, Boubacar Barry, Mario CISSOKHO, Ibrahima Baba KAKE, ourselves and many other researchers in Mali, Guinea-Conakry, Guinea-Bissau, Kaabu interested : Europeans such as Jean BOULEGUE (Paris Sorbonne), the Reverend Father GRAVRAND (France), specialist of Serer, Antonio Carreira (Portugal); Americans like George E. BROOKS, trade specialist precolonial Senegambia Dioulas Mandingo, Joye Bowman Hawkins, who presented a brilliant thesis on the Kaabu Fulani hegemony after the fall of Kansala (1865). As we see, Kaabu became the last ten years a great subject of history. And this is only fair for those who know the richness and scope of the story at least six centuries of this entity. That's what we try to describe in this study.I. MAIN STEPS OF CHANGE HISTORYKaabu was a vast area dominated by Mandingo, ranging from the Gambia to the north to the borders of Guinea Conakry to the south, from Guinea-Bissau, medium and high Casamance. It was a social formation of sub-regional scale, at the crossroads of several waterways (Gambia, Geba, Corubal) connecting the Atlantic Coast to the West African hinterland. This vast area, easy access to what was Kaabu, offered a natural outlet for all migrants who wanted to reach the eastern Atlantic coast. Indeed, those who founded the Kaabu were migrants from the Mande Mandingo (now Mali and part of Guinea-Conakry). The ancestors of Guélowars of Sine and Saloum, led by Maysa DIONE Wali (real name Mansa Wali MANE) were from Kaabu  Most current Mandinka in Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Casamance (except Pakao) Kaabu make their motherland. These facts invite only accept Kaabu we are dealing with one aspect of our historical heritage are most likely to motivate and encourage the integration of different countries of our sub-region, that integration, moreover, we call all our wishes. Occupation Mandingo Kaabu to is ancient, dating from the 13th century at least, the time of Sundiata Keita, founder of the Mali Empire. It is even possible now to say that the Mandinka presence in Senegambia predates the advent of Sundiata. We advance the 12th century. Only at that time, immigrants were still in the minority Mandingo within populations Baynuk and Padjadinka considered indigenous to the region. Minority in the 12th century, the Mandingo had no political power, because in those days in Senegambia government Musu-Manso (queens Mandingo), reflecting the impact of matriarchy in the world kaabunké. Thus, while waiting to make hegemonic later, the Mandingo had to deal with local realities by immersing himself in socio-cultural Baynunk-Padjadinka: marriage alliances, political organization morcellée in various kingdoms and chiefdoms as c ' was the tradition in countries Baynunk-Padjadinka. Probably at that time that the foundations of civilization kaabunké were established. And certainly, this culture is mixed, as will be shown later analysis Nyanthioya and surnames of the Mandingo Kaabu. This intermingling of the origins Kaabu, oral traditions baynunk-padjakinda affirm clearly. In the 13th century with the founding of the empire of Mali by Sundiata, immigrants Mandingo Kaabu would gradually seize political power at the expense of native whose queens were one to one ousted at Niomi at Jaara at Kombo at Kiang Badiar in and around Senegambia where they ruled. The political revolution brought about by the Mandingo accompanied by the establishment of patriarchy. However, as Nyanthioya will show us the traces of matriarchy had not completely disappeared. They would resist a form of matrilineal transmission of supreme political power in Kaabu. According to most traditions Mandingo of Senegambia is Tiramakan Traore, a general Soundiatta, who conquered the Kaabu, after he led an expedition on behalf of his sovereign, country Wolof. Tirimakan it killed the Djolofin Mansa and made a pass at Kaabu where he allowed the Mandingo and become the undisputed masters of the region at the expense of all other ethnic groups were subject to the order Mandingo. This version of Mandingo origin of Kaabu is best known today because it is certainly more convenient and easier to remember than others in which appear the names of several founders more or less anonymous and that the process of Kaabu the location was peaceful. In any case, it's Tiramakan Traore is claimed that the ruling aristocracy SANE - MANE Kaabu. It is certainly difficult to deny the role of military and political training in Tiramakan Kaabu. Nevertheless, before and after him, waves of immigrants had Mandingo too, so peaceful and often anonymous, worked to consolidate the hegemony Mandingo Senegambia. So why this insistence on oral traditions Tiramakan?--------------------------------------------------------------------------------This may be because the major historical events may need to better mark the collective memory, names, symbols, large figures that exclude other less charismatic, less uptake. In Tiramakan the Kaabunké had a historical reference, a myth all the more powerful it is related to the Epic of Sundiata, King of Kings in West Africa. Therefore, the formation of Kaabu should not be regarded as a collective work, but rather like an exceptional man. This would give more weight and consideration to social and political aristocracy who would seize power  These are the masters of the Mandingo Kaabu from the 13th century. But it was not enough to have power, it also had to organize, maintain to make it sustainable. That is what the Mandingo would tackle for decades until the late 13th century and early 14th century, the politico-administrative organization would switch from confederation between the twelve provinces that make up the Kaabu mode slightly more centralized and personalized Nyanthioya. During Phase confederate, each province was largely autonomous with its own chief who had allegiance to the emperor of Mali Niani or KangabaWhere all the remaining leaders of the provinces Kaabu would be crowned Mansa (king). The twelve provinces that make up the Kaabu were: Sama, Jimara, Patiana, Mana, Sankolla, Kolla, Tiagna, Kantor Niampayo, Toumanna, Propane, Badiar. A loose political organization was not please everyone, including supporters of a strong central power. They managed to win in the late 13th century and early 14th century by making a large institutional revolution which took the name Nyanthioya. To strengthen this revolution, which excluded from central power clans Sonko, Sagna, Mandjan, Djassi the-Sane Mane instaurèrent mysticism Nyanthio. According to this mystical Nyanthios were the descendants of three supernatural women born in a cave in Kaabu, a father "djin" (mimicking nature) and his mother Princess Mandingo Ténemba, who had fled the court of his father , Emperor of Mali. What sacred ancestry and prestigious! This is the version of the origin of Nyanthios, conveyed by the legend that persists to this day. The three women who gave birth to the first called nyanthios Balaba Tinkida who settled in Patiana, UFAR who settled in Sama and that Kani remained in Jimara. That is why Patiana, the Sama, the Jimara were considered the only provincial-nyanthios Kaabu, beside the other provinces who were-Koring. The Koring This constituted part of the ruling aristocracy that came after the Nyanthios they were warlords and provincial governors. These were Sonko, Sagna, Mandja, Djassi. If you put in brackets the myth and legend, we can see that the Nyanthioya builds a new power, the more powerful it is monopolized by a minority. This minority had given some legitimacy by claiming two prestigious names in the Mande: Tiramakan TRAORE and TénembaPrincess, daughter of a mansa of Mali. Better to ensure their cohesion and keep power, instituted the Nyanthios matrilineage which is a relic of the influence of Mansa Musu (Queens), the time when the Mandinka were not preponderant in Kaabu . It is nyanthio by the mother only, and this requires bear the names SANE AND MANE. The names SANE, MANE, Sonko, MANDJAN, Djassi, SAGNA existed long before the establishment of nyanthioya. With nyanthioya all other names were excluded from the supreme power (mansaya) at Kaabu. Even MANE SANE and who were not mothers nyanthio (and they were the majority) became only Mansaring . The advent of nyanthioya had so disrupted the organization and the political institutions of Kaabu. Even the national capital had changed location and name: KANSALA supplanted MAMPATING. And mansaya became rotary Kansala between Sama and the Pathiana Jimara who were the provinces-nyanthios. Those excluded from nyanthioya who were dissatisfied with their lot exiled to other regions and peoples. There were some who emigrated in Quinara-Diola (or Beafada) and Balanta, others went to the regions Gambia (the Niomi at Jaara at Kiang at Badibou). This initial dispersion Kaabunké long before that would happen in the 19th century after the fall of Kansala, had driven across the country between Guinea and Gambia or names Sane, Mane, Sonko, Sagna, Mandjan, Djassi cohabited with local names as DIAMM, Coly, Nanki, Sadio Biaye, Diatta, Bodian, etc.. Finally, one of the largest migrations kaabunké its politico-cultural consequences was that the ancestors of Guélowars with MANE Mansa Wali, Wali aka Maysa DIONE. In this epic at the beginning of the century, when the historical relationship between Kaabu, Sine and Saloum. In the Sine Saloum and, because of the phenomenon Guélowar, the MANE and probably Sonko, Sagna and others had "sérérisés, while keeping it political power. Mansa Wali MANE had departed Badiar (at Kaabu) with a large retinue, including his sister, Sira Sira Badral Badiar or sung by the poet Senghor, and reached the Mbissel Sine, after a long journey to Niombato in the Saloum islands, in Joal-Fadiouth. He died in Sine leaving power in the offspring of her niece Teninge who married a wrestler named Serer Djilakh FAYE. We see again the matrilineage is still at work: like nyanthios Kaabu the Guélowar of Sine power is transmitted through the uterus, from uncle to nephew, the latter to be a mother Guélowar. Returning to Kaabu to note that these waves of exiled dissidents who diminish the power nyanthio the contrary, it built a military power to serve the growing political and cultural influence of the Mandingo in Senegambia . Became the "policemen" of the area, nyanthios frequently brought their military assistance to nearly all Gambian kingdoms: Niomi, Kombo, Jaara, Badibou, Kiang, Niani, Woula, etc.. In this way, Kaabu was able to introduce his princely clans within the quasi-totality of the ruling aristocracy of Senegambia: the Mane and Sonko to Niomi, Sagna in the Kiang and Jaara; of Sane in Niani and woul. One could multiply examples, as they were numerous and significant how had gradually forged a vast politico-cultural Mandingo we denote by "World Kaabunké"With its center of gravity of political and military state of nyanthios whose head was Kansala (now located in Guinea-Bissau). What would this context is described, from the 15th and 16th centuries, European travelers, especially Portuguese, who in their different chronic recognized the political reality of the fact Mandingo in Senegambia. Two of these European travelers, the Portuguese Alvares d'Almada, André DONNELHA had even confirmed the sovereignty Kaabu exercised over the entire area. They designated the king of Kaabu the generic expression FARINKAABUThat is to say, the supreme head of the region, according to the meaning of the word Farin which, in the titular political Mandingo meant provincial governor. Indeed, until the political revolution of nyanthioya, kings Mandingo Senegambian, including Kaabu were vassals or provincial governors of the Emperor of Mali. Hence the title of flour they wore and the first Portuguese travelers mention in their writings in the 15th, 16th and even 17th centuries. However, it is important to note that Europeans had never had the opportunity to meet directly with a sovereign state Kaabu. The only information they received on their KANSALA came from the Dioula (itinerant African traders) who roamed the entire region into the heart of Kaabu. This is because, based on the bravery and military prowess, the mystical royal Nyanthio despised commercial activity deemed degrading and crass material. The Europeans came to trade and therefore they were ignored by Nyanthios who preferred to let their vassals of the Atlantic coast (Kombo, Niomi, Fogny, Beafada Kingdoms, Kingdom of Kasa) deal with these foreign conquerors of "Nafulo" (wealth material in Mandinka). This fact also explains why Europeans are written in poor accurate information on Kaabu, particularly as regards the chronology of events, names of rulers, the delineation of space kaabunké, the geographical description of the state kaabunké and many other aspects. All this is finally the cause of our problems today to better understand the historical Revolution Kaabu. One can therefore understand the big appeal is made to oral traditions, despite their vagueness and taste wonderful, to write the past kaabunké. These oral traditions have allowed us to know, among other facts, that the Kaabu nyanthios was the political center of all the Mandingo of Senegambia whose ruling classes came to their education policy mansaya (royalty) and military art . The same traditions we cite kaabunké sovereign of renown whose Souman Koliba, Sarafa Nyaling Jenung, Mankotoba Sane, Faran Sankulé, Dianké Wali Sane all that marked the evolution of Kaabu. To enter a little into detail, note that it is only Mankotoba Sane who received his reign came from the Konté Sangaran (Mali) to form the Kombo (Gambia) where they ended up taking the surname BODIAN instead of Konte, but the memory of Sangaran (or Sankaran) remained in their motto: "Bodian Sankaranka" = "Bodian originating Sankaran. As for Islam in Kaabu he had settled relatively early, at a period which may be located before the onset of nyanthioya. The first Muslim families Kaabu were born around two main figures marabout: Sanoba and Fatiba which, they say, were the companions of the first immigrants came from Mandingo animist Mande. Much later, the 16th-17th centuries, in the heart of Kaabu at Bijin (now Guinea-Bissau) was moved to another branch marabout came to Timbuktu from the Mandingo traditions collected by Bakari Sidibe already mentioned, it is Bayo (deformation of kaabunké Bagayogo) reinforced by SamaThe Gassama. But it should be noted that until the 19th century, morikunda (location of Muslim families) were still in the minority and only tolerated in the world kaabunké. For Islam to the animist kaabunké could be a boost to religious worship practiced in the ancient sacred wood and often protected by "Bida", the sacred serpent. The most famous places of worship of traditional nyanthios Kaabu name TAMBA-DibbaLocated near the capital Kansala. To conclude this chapter on the history evulution, we discuss the decline of the state nyanthios which begins from the early 19th century. Contradictions of all orders related to factors both internal as external causes had precipitated the fall of Kaabu. Among the causes destabilization of socio-political and economic world kaabunké we mention: European Atlantic trade which focused very early on the slave trade was gradually disrupted the traditional trade routes Senegambia, while giving vassal states Rim Kaabu more resources to empower and jealous of each other; the rise of Islam which opened new opportunities for socio-political bodies that supported more and more difficult the yoke nyanthio. What must add nyanthios provincial rivalries, especially between Sama and Pathiana. In this context of rivalry between provinces nyanthios that came the death of the most famous warlords Kaabu of the 19th century, Ghalen Sonko, one of Koring Sankolla-Bérékolon. This death, according to the Mandingo traditions, played for much of the weakening of the national defense system Kaabu against his neighbor more menacing Muslim theocracy Fouta Djallon, South East Kaabu, and since its training in the 18th century had ceased to be the fall of nyanthios one pillar of its policy of territorial conquest. From the mid-19th century, all the conditions seemed right for the Fouta Djallon Kaabu attack him in a series of wars and battles that culminated in 1865 with the fall and destruction aala Capital Kansala the reign of the last ruler Mandingo Kaabu, the famous Dianké Wali Sane. It organized a heroic resistance that the victory of Futa was a Pyrrhic victory: the slaughter of Kansala, known by the phrase "Tourban-Kansala'Was the both the Mandingo defeated as the Fulani of Futa which suffered heavy casualties. Even so, for tradition Mandingo Tourban-Kansala is a symbol of courage, power, strength and commitment to the territorial integrity of the sacred homeland kaabunké. The fall of Kansala immediately set in motion the process of liberating the Kaabu Fulani, long subject to the order Mandingo. The national liberation of the Fulani Kaabu, under the direction of Eggué become Alfa Molo Molo, gave birth to Fouladou, That is to say all provinces liberated from Fulani and Mandingo under the tutelage of Molo. Alfa Molo, the liberator, died about 1881 in Dandu (Guinea Bissau). And his son, Musa Molo, who attempted to complete his work. But already at that time promised to the European colonial era that would transform Moussa Molo large resistance which conquered, ended his days in 1931 in Gambia, Kessérékunda precisely where a mausoleum to his memory is now built by the State of Senegal.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------II. ASPECTS OF ETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE WORLD AND KAABUNKE irredentism PEULThe world kaabunké, despite the preponderance Mandingo, was in an ethnically complex reality made of mixing, but also of exclusion. Indeed, besides Mandingo, one report noted the presence of several ethnic groups considered indigenous to the region. We, in this sense already discussed Baynunk-Padjadinkas which must be added the Diola, Balanta, Papel, Slabs, Manjacos, Beafada. As for the Fulani, they are alien as the Mandingo, and their presence in Kaabu dates back to 14th-15th centuries. However, for nearly three centuries (16th to mid 19th century), kabunké were able to give harmony to ethnic fragmentation and establish a stable political and cultural life to them, of course, favorable. In this regard, we received an excellent study of A. Teixeira de Mota presented at International Symposium in Dakar Kaabu .1.) Background on the Regional Kaabu policy and strategy "Mandinguisation" This policy focused on the establishment of a cultural service of the Mandingo hegemony, from Gambia north to the borders of the country nalou to the south, Guinea-Conakry. The kabunké were not the only Mandingo of Senegambia, from which it takes the Kombonké (Kombo), the Niominka (Niomi), the Badikunké (Badidou), the Woyinké (Woy), the Pakawnké (Pakao). In this context ethnic Kaabu of Nyanthios had implemented a two pronged strategy: to grant broad autonomy to political vassals Mandingo kingdoms and focus on the "mandinguisation" other Fulani. The kaabunké had perhaps realized that one effective means of ensuring their political hegemony was through cultural domination. Indeed, kingdoms like Niomi the Kombo, Kiang, the Jaara the Badibou the Niani the Woula and many others along the Gambia River enjoyed considerable autonomy of action that allowed them of integrate the European Atlantic trade, by hosting trading posts in their own way to organize economic space they had in common. Moreover, these close contacts with the Europeans did today we are better informed about these realms as vassals Kaabu same. The "mandinguisation" would therefore apply to other peoples. According to information provided by Portuguese sources of the 16th and 17th centuries  Is the Birassu which mandated Kaabu had dominated and mandinguisé kingdoms Baynuk of Kasa (whence came the word Casamance = Mansa Kasa Kasa = king) and the Jassine Soungrougou (a tributary of Casamance). The same action was made by the Birassu with Balanta. To confirm the influence of the Mandingo Balanta, E. Bertrand Bocanda Had mentioned the name MANE that most of them are even today and which we know is home kaabunké. The Balanta-Mane, before mandinguisation, bore the surname "Saminanko", "Samikan", "Dingoli. The wave assimilationist Mandingo had also affected Padjadinka, and Beafada between kingdoms located in the Rio Geba and the Rio Grande (Guinea-Bissau). They were both mandinguisés by Birassu and Kaabu. The Birassu had also influenced the Woy which most of the people, Balanta originally had come to support themselves by taking the Mandingo name Woyinké. As of Manjacos, Papel, Mankagnes (or Brahmins) and a large number of subgroups Diola, we noted no mention of their mandinguisation. Indeed, even today they remain very few people affected by the influence Mandingo. To explain, we might note that Papels, Manjacos, Mankagnes were minority groups living in the periphery of the cultural area kaabunké. Hence, perhaps, the low socio-political interest they aroused among their neighbors Mandingo. Actually, confined to their land around the Rio Gaba, they had never constituted a political threat to the state Kaabu. A final note on "mandinguisation" Peoples Senegambian she was rarely violent, it was more peaceful. The success of "mandinguisation" Was he tied to this situation? Was it not due to the low resistance of cultural domination or their willingness to be open to a majority culture whose language was one of the major languages of communication in West Africa? Further research will allow us to clarify these issues of great importance for social history Kaabu. Let's talk last a symbol of mandinguisation, who was also a legendary figure of Kaabu: Kelefa SANEFrom father and mother Kaabunké Beafada and died a warrior, buried Baya Gambia. Kelefa SANE embodied Kaabunké and the world both in its cultural mix in its major sub-regional military Senegambia. We must now examine the relationship between the Mandingo and Fulani subjects in Kaabu.2) The Fulani irredentismThe Fulani are former cohabitants of kaabunké Senegambia. They had arrived in 14th-15th centuries. Hosted by foreign Kaabu, guardians Mandingo helped them to settle with their livestock, giving them separate localities called the term of Mandingo "Fulakunda. In return for their installation and free exercise of their agro-pastoralists, the Fulani were required to pay an annual tribute in kind to their hosts. This is the sociopolitical status of Fulani, in the world Kaabunké, a status they had rarely attempted until the early 19th century, to question, despite its oppressive character. This situation was however dominated initiated attachment of the Fulani in their cultural traditions remained alive. Subject to their masters Mandingo politically, they were nonetheless shown a stubborn resistance to the socio-cultural: continuation of pastoral activities in spite of the settlement; practice of endogamy and the Fulani language in a word, preservation of all that enhances the socio-cultural identity of a people. This dignity, coupled with great pride of providing for themselves Fulani, was difficult to accept that the Mandingo intensified harassment, humiliation, abuse of any kind to try to depersonalize the Fulani people. These facts are, however, extensively reported by the Mandingo tradition. Thus, plunder or pillage a herd of Fulani crops remained almost always go unpunished; frequent revolts Fulani in the late 18th and early 19th century were put down in blood. The Fulani cultural resistance was all the more unacceptable to Nyanthios it was almost unique among all other peoples dominated by Kaabu; again, it took place at the heart of the strongholds of the State Kaabunké: Kansala, Bérékolon, Sumakunda, Nyantior, Kabendou, Pirada housed important Fulakunda. As we see, unlike the other dominated peoples living on the outskirts of Kaabu, the Fulani led their lives within their masters Mandingo with whom they shared the same space. Therefore, it is entitled to consider the behavior of the Fulani Kaabu cultural irredentism as a perennial in the 19th century, hastened the decline in state policy kaabunké to Tourban-Kansala in 1865.III. SOME LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE EXPERIENCE OF HISTORY KaabuA paradox is based on analysis of relations with its peoples Kaabu dominated: the "mandinguisation" has achieved much more easily with the ethnic groups located in peripheral areas of Kaabu, whereas with the Fulani who lived within the dominant order Kaabunké not only assimilation failed, but the relationship remained strained leading to the many revolts of the 19th century Fulani embodied by a charismatic leader: Alfa Molo, Molo Eggué said. During this century, in fact, the Fulani with the active support of their fellow Fouta Djallon had passed their total liberation from the domination kaabunké. But the political decline of Kaabu did not result in weakening cultural Mandingo. Mandingo civilization has survived to the State Kaabuké. Their survival is largely a side-impact policy "mandinguisation, and the other to strong cultural unity Mandingo has been preserved over the centuries in the regions of the world Gambian kaabunké. The Gambian kingdoms had undergone major political and religious turmoil marked seal of Islam . But all these changes had occurred within the bosom Mandingo: proselytizing Jakhanké provided that Jihad of Fode Kaba Doumbouya and Kombo Fode Sylla involved, inter alia, strengthening the cultural dominance Mandingo Senegambia. Other consequences of political decline kaabunké, this time in the southern regions: the outbreak of ethnic conflict uncommon before the fall of Kansala. Thus the Balanta people, for example, long suppressed by the dominance kaabunké, profited in the early 19th century, the existing political disorder to engage in wars of conquest against some of its neighbors not Mandingo. Average Casamance, Balanta were able to displace some of the Mandingo and 1830 to establish their hegemony over the realm of baynuk Kasa they seized the capital Birkama. This is the birth of Balantakunda not a kingdom , But a zone of occupation and domination Balante torn to Baynunk and located on the left bank of the Casamance average, along the border with Guinea-Bissau present. We talked earlier about the survival of the cultural Mandingo Senegambia. However, by the combined effects of irredentism Fulani and Balante revolution in the 19th century, the Mandingo cultural supremacy continues to manifest itself now in its solid unity of yesteryear. Strengthening the fact Mandingo currently seems to go hand in hand with the return of different peoples Mandingo their individuality as long domination Kaabunké had helped to reduce. Today the Mandingo of Senegambia love to be designated by terms that reflect their diversity and the end of their older solidarity built around the world kaabunké: Kaabunké, Birassunké, Pakawnké, Kombonké, Niominka, Woynké, Badibunké, etc. ... have become the words by which reality is expressed in the Mandingo country between Guinea and Gambia. It should however be noted that this diversity works to mutual tolerance and sense of belonging to the same civilization, Mandingo civilization of Tilidji (West of the Mande, West taken in its strictly geographical sense). Among the features of civilizational Tilidji, we can state the Kankourang, Mystical mask appearing during circumcision ceremonies, the koraThis instrument chordophone now famous throughout the world and was invented in Kaabu; the dimbaya as associations of women in fertility or harm facing infant mortality practice around values that have names humility, solidarity, motherly love, all in an atmosphere of gaiety and dance like know how to do African women. The conclusion that we want to serve this paper on Kaabu will define some research directions that would better depth of a few outstanding issues: . Periodization of historical development; . List of different sovereigns; . Accurate list of provinces Kaabu at different stages of its history; . Process and period of establishment of the Fulani Kaabu . The origin and meaning of surnames kabunké SANE, MANE, Sonko, Sagna, MANDJAN, Djassi not found in other parts of the world Mandinka West African. The origins of Nyanthioya and a comparative study with the phenomenon Guélowar the Sine and Saloum; . Foundations baynunk-padjadika civilization kabunké etc.. See in this regard our study entitled "Contribution to the history of Kaabu from its origins in the twentieth century" BIFAN, Series B, Volume 40, No. 1, January 1978 - DAKAR Cf RP GRAVRAND, Cosaan Sereer, NEA, DAKAR, 1983. On this question, cf. our communication at the Symposium on Kaabu supra, published in the journal Ethiopiques # 20 Special, October 1981, Dakar. See supra Is a misnomer that we want to make all of SANE and MANE nyanthios. The term nyanthio, expanded today, was much more restrictive time greatness kaabunké A. Teixeira da Mota:'s relations with some former Cabou States and neighboring nations (Communication to the Conference on Kaabu, in Ethiopiques # 28 Special in October 1981, Dakar) See A. Teixeira da Mota, op. cit. Quoted in A. Teixeira da Mota, Bocandé-Bertrand was a French contractor, residing Carabane who had traveled all the Senegambia in the mid 19th century. See L. Ousman Sanneh: The History of the Jakhanke people of Senegambia (School of Oriental an African Studies, London, 1974), Ch A. Quinn, Mandingo Kingdoms of the Senegambia, Evanston USA, 1972 The Balanta, as the Diola, and other mankagnes form societies without centralized state structures and strong.Kaabu ONE OF THE GREAT HISTORICAL HERITAGE OF ENTITIES Guineo-SenegambianTHE NEGRO-AFRICAN PLAYWRIGHT AND HISTORY4.For OF CIVILIZATION "CREATORS"